A lot of the terminology we use on this site is best learnt in connection with English.
Words for people, places, or things, e.g. tree, arm, woman, knowledge.
Words for actions, states, or occurrences, e.g. go, see, know, want, find, happen.
Words for attributes of nouns, e.g. red, large, complex, imaginary.
Words that express manner, degree, or time, in relation to a verb, adjective, or adverb, e.g. quickly, gently, finally, fully, earlier, tomorrow.
Form of a verb indicating action that takes place in the present or future, where the present/future distinction is only given by context, e.g. we are going (now / next month), I am coming to see you (and I'm already on my way / after I finish a few things at work).
Form of the verb indicating a completed action, constructed in English with have and the past participle which often ends in -ed, e.g. he has lived in Darwin for 5 years.
Form of the verb indicating ongoing action, constructed in English with be and the present participle which ends in -ing, e.g. he was living in Darwin when....
Type of verb which requires an object, or something that receives the action, e.g. help, drop, love, open, hit, kill, admire.
Type of verb which does not have an object, or something that receives the action, e.g. arrive, sleep, stand, die, cry, panic, appear, float.
Words and phrases constructed by repeating material, sometimes with modification, e.g. bye bye, zigzag, flip flop, fancy schmancy.
The situation when a word has two or more related meanings, e.g. mint (shrub, leaf, flavour, sweet), burn (action of burning something (verb), the result of burning (noun)).
Note that some English words are polysemous from a Bininj perspective, e.g. grandmother (i.e. mother's mother or father's mother, for which Kunwok has distinct words).
A related concept is homonymy, when two distinct words sound the same, regardless of how they might be written, e.g. write/right, two/to/too. Some homonyms are also homographs, e.g. bat (striking instrument, flying mammal), mint (plant/flavour, financial institution).