Difference between revisions of "Pronunciation"

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__NOTOC__
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In the following tables, the second column uses the International Phonetic Alphabet ([[Wikipedia:IPA vowel chart with audio|IPA]]); click on the IPA letters for more information.
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=== Vowels ===
 +
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
|-
 
|-
 
| a      || [[wikipedia:Open back unrounded vowel|ɑ]]      || m'''a'''h (ok) || a as in father
 
| a      || [[wikipedia:Open back unrounded vowel|ɑ]]      || m'''a'''h (ok) || a as in father
 +
|-
 +
| e      || [[wikipedia:Open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]  || kunk'''e'''b (nose) || e as in pet
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|-
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| i      || [[wikipedia:Close front unrounded vowel|i]]    || b'''i'''n'''i'''nj (man) || e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
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|-
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| o      || [[wikipedia:Open back rounded vowel|ɒ]]        || kunw'''o'''k (language) || o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
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|-
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| u      || u                                              || k'''u'''nd'''u'''lk (tree) || u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)
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|-
 +
|}
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Sometimes, you may hear e pronounced [[wikipedia:Near-open front unrounded vowel|æ]] a as in bang (before ng or k).
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This can happen before ng or k, e.g. bebm'''e'''ng (arrived), ngarrb'''e'''k (echidna).
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 +
=== Consonants ===
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 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
|-
 
|-
 
| b      || b      || '''b'''o'''b'''o (bye) || b as in baby
 
| b      || b      || '''b'''o'''b'''o (bye) || b as in baby
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|-
 
|-
 
| rd    || [[wikipedia:Voiced retroflex stop|ɖ]]          || wu'''rd'''u'''rd''' (child) || like d but with tongue tip curled back  
 
| rd    || [[wikipedia:Voiced retroflex stop|ɖ]]          || wu'''rd'''u'''rd''' (child) || like d but with tongue tip curled back  
|-
 
| e      || [[wikipedia:Open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]  || kunk'''e'''b (nose) || e as in pet (not before ng)
 
|-
 
| e      || [[wikipedia:Near-open front unrounded vowel|æ]] || bebm'''e'''ng (arrived) || a as in bang (before ng)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| h      || [[wikipedia:Glottal stop|ʔ]]                    || yo'''h''' (yes) || glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects   
 
| h      || [[wikipedia:Glottal stop|ʔ]]                    || yo'''h''' (yes) || glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects   
|-
 
| i      || [[wikipedia:Close front unrounded vowel|i]]    || b'''i'''n'''i'''nj (man) || e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| k      || k                                              || dalu'''k''' (woman) || k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
 
| k      || k                                              || dalu'''k''' (woman) || k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
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| ng    || [[wikipedia:Velar nasal|ŋ]]                    || '''ng'''alyod (rainbow serpent) || ng as in sing
 
| ng    || [[wikipedia:Velar nasal|ŋ]]                    || '''ng'''alyod (rainbow serpent) || ng as in sing
 
|-
 
|-
| nj    || [[wikipedia:Palatal nasal|ɲ]]                  || '''nj'''ale (what)  || gn as in gnocci
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| nj    || [[wikipedia:Palatal nasal|ɲ]]                  || '''nj'''ale (what)  || gn as in gnocchi
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rn    || [[wikipedia:Retroflex nasal|ɳ]]                || birriwe'''rn''' (everyone) || like n but with tongue tip curled back
 
| rn    || [[wikipedia:Retroflex nasal|ɳ]]                || birriwe'''rn''' (everyone) || like n but with tongue tip curled back
|-
 
| o      || [[wikipedia:Open back rounded vowel|ɒ]]        || kunw'''o'''k (language) || o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| r      || [[wikipedia:Retroflex approximant|ɻ]]          || ku'''r'''ed (camp) || r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
 
| r      || [[wikipedia:Retroflex approximant|ɻ]]          || ku'''r'''ed (camp) || r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rr    || [[wikipedia:Dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]] or [[wikipedia:Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]] || dja'''rr'''ang (horse) || t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
 
| rr    || [[wikipedia:Dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]] or [[wikipedia:Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]] || dja'''rr'''ang (horse) || t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
|-
 
| u      || u                                              || k'''u'''nd'''u'''lk (tree) || u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| w      || w                                              || '''w'''ak'''w'''ak (crow) || w as in wet
 
| w      || w                                              || '''w'''ak'''w'''ak (crow) || w as in wet
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|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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 +
Notes:
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* consonants are not aspirated like they are sometimes in English (no puff of air after k)
 +
* some words have doubled consonants like ''ngabba'' (father); take care to lengthen these, e.g. ngap.pa
 +
* rd is usually written d when we can predict an rd is required, e.g. rdird~dird (moon), kuwardrde~kuwardde (stone country)
 +
* d is pronounced rr when it appears between two vowels and when the following syllable is not stressed, e.g. Yi'''rr'''urndi (you went back) vs. birri'''d'''urndi (they went back)
  
 
=== Diphthongs ===
 
=== Diphthongs ===
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| aw || aw || y'''aw'''ky'''aw'''k (girl) || ou as in ouch
 
| aw || aw || y'''aw'''ky'''aw'''k (girl) || ou as in ouch
 
|-
 
|-
| ey || ɛj || kunng'''ey''' (name) || a as in name
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| ey || ɛj || kunng'''ey''' (name) || a as in name (in Australian English)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ew || ɛw || kudj'''ew'''k (wet season) || like el in elk but with rounded lips instead of the l
 
| ew || ɛw || kudj'''ew'''k (wet season) || like el in elk but with rounded lips instead of the l
 
|-
 
|-
| iw || iw || ? ||
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| iw || iw || kund'''iw''' (liver) || pronounced like iii-ooo, but quickly
 
|-
 
|-
 
| oy || ɔj || d'''oy'''d'''oy''' (kin term) || pronounced like 'oy!'
 
| oy || ɔj || d'''oy'''d'''oy''' (kin term) || pronounced like 'oy!'
 
|-
 
|-
| ow || ow || r'''ow'''k (all) || ow as in row
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| ow || ow || r'''ow'''k (all) || ow as in row (for rowing a boat)
 
|-
 
|-
| uy || uj || manng'''uy''' (flower) ||
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| uy || uj || manng'''uy''' (flower) || pronounced like ooo-iii, but quickly
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
Notes:
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=== Syllables ===
* the second column uses the international phonetic alphabet ([[Wikipedia:IPA vowel chart with audio|IPA]]); click on the IPA letters for more information
+
 
* consonants are not aspirated like they are sometimes in English (no puff of air after k)
+
When pronouncing words, it is helpful to break them down into syllables.
* some words have doubled consonants like ''ngabba'' (father); take care to lengthen these
+
This is a three step process:
* sometimes it helps to break words down into syllables before trying to pronounce them, e.g. kun.ngey (name), be.rluh (aunty), mo.djarrk.ki (freshwater crocodile)
+
 
* rd is usually written d when we can predict an rd is required, e.g. rdird~dird (moon), kuwardrde~kuwardde (stone country)
+
# underline each vowel
* d is pronounced rr when it appears between two vowels and when the following syllable is not stressed
+
# for each vowel, point (with a pen tip) just before the vowel, count one consonant to the left and move the pointer
* Kunwok placenames sometimes have an English spelling that is distinct from the Kunwok spelling, e.g. Gunbalanya~Kunbarlanjnja
+
# the syllable boundary is here ''unless putting it here would break up a digraph'' (dj, rd, rl, ng, nj, rn, rr), in which case, go one more consonant to the left
 +
 
 +
Examples:
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* k<u>u</u>n.d<u>u</u>lk (name)
 +
* k<u>u</u>n.ng<u>e</u>y (name)
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* b<u>e</u>.rl<u>u</u>h (aunty)
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* ng<u>u</u>d.d<u>a</u> (you)
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* k<u>u</u>n.d<u>e</u>.ng<u>e</u> (foot)
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* m<u>o</u>.dj<u>a</u>rrk.k<u>i</u> (freshwater crocodile)
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* k<u>u</u>n.b<u>a</u>.rl<u>a</u>.nj<u>a</u> (Kunbarlanja = Gunbalanya)
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* m<u>a</u>.m<u>a</u>.rd<u>a</u>.w<u>e</u>.rr<u>e</u> (Mamardawerre)
 +
 
 +
Some syllables look familiar to English speakers, but you need to be careful not to pronounce them as in English:
 +
* ''yaw'' (English: movement of a boat) but in Kunwok it rhymes with the vowel in "ouch!", e.g. ''wurdyaw'' (child)
 +
* ''bang'' (English: loud noise) but in Kunwok it sounds like how we pronounce "bung" (broken), e.g. ''bangkerreng'' (knock 'em down storm season)
 +
* ''kang'' (English, start of kangaroo) but in Kunwok it might not even be a single syllable e.g. ''ka.ngi.men'' (it went inside)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Finally, pronounce each syllable in succession.
 +
 
 +
=== Notes ===
 +
 
 +
* Kunwok placenames sometimes have an English spelling that is distinct from the Kunwok spelling, e.g. Gunbalanya~Kunbarlanja

Latest revision as of 09:48, 14 February 2019

In the following tables, the second column uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA); click on the IPA letters for more information.

Vowels

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
a ɑ mah (ok) a as in father
e ɛ kunkeb (nose) e as in pet
i i bininj (man) e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
o ɒ kunwok (language) o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
u u kundulk (tree) u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)

Sometimes, you may hear e pronounced æ a as in bang (before ng or k). This can happen before ng or k, e.g. bebmeng (arrived), ngarrbek (echidna).

Consonants

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
b b bobo (bye) b as in baby
d d daluk (woman) d as in dog
dj ɟ djedje (woman's child) j as in jam (but with tongue body against hard palate)
rd ɖ wurdurd (child) like d but with tongue tip curled back
h ʔ yoh (yes) glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects
k k daluk (woman) k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
k g kured (camp) g as in game (at start of syllable)
l l delek (white clay) l as in long
rl ɭ berluh (aunty) like l but with tongue tip curled back
m m manme (food) m as in man
n n nayin (snake) n as in nose
ng ŋ ngalyod (rainbow serpent) ng as in sing
nj ɲ njale (what) gn as in gnocchi
rn ɳ birriwern (everyone) like n but with tongue tip curled back
r ɻ kured (camp) r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
rr ɾ or r djarrang (horse) t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
w w wakwak (crow) w as in wet
y j yoh (yes) y as in yes

Notes:

  • consonants are not aspirated like they are sometimes in English (no puff of air after k)
  • some words have doubled consonants like ngabba (father); take care to lengthen these, e.g. ngap.pa
  • rd is usually written d when we can predict an rd is required, e.g. rdird~dird (moon), kuwardrde~kuwardde (stone country)
  • d is pronounced rr when it appears between two vowels and when the following syllable is not stressed, e.g. Yirrurndi (you went back) vs. birridurndi (they went back)

Diphthongs

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
ay aj malaywi (morning) pronounced like aye in Scottish English
aw aw yawkyawk (girl) ou as in ouch
ey ɛj kunngey (name) a as in name (in Australian English)
ew ɛw kudjewk (wet season) like el in elk but with rounded lips instead of the l
iw iw kundiw (liver) pronounced like iii-ooo, but quickly
oy ɔj doydoy (kin term) pronounced like 'oy!'
ow ow rowk (all) ow as in row (for rowing a boat)
uy uj mannguy (flower) pronounced like ooo-iii, but quickly

Syllables

When pronouncing words, it is helpful to break them down into syllables. This is a three step process:

  1. underline each vowel
  2. for each vowel, point (with a pen tip) just before the vowel, count one consonant to the left and move the pointer
  3. the syllable boundary is here unless putting it here would break up a digraph (dj, rd, rl, ng, nj, rn, rr), in which case, go one more consonant to the left

Examples:

  • kun.dulk (name)
  • kun.ngey (name)
  • be.rluh (aunty)
  • ngud.da (you)
  • kun.de.nge (foot)
  • mo.djarrk.ki (freshwater crocodile)
  • kun.ba.rla.nja (Kunbarlanja = Gunbalanya)
  • ma.ma.rda.we.rre (Mamardawerre)

Some syllables look familiar to English speakers, but you need to be careful not to pronounce them as in English:

  • yaw (English: movement of a boat) but in Kunwok it rhymes with the vowel in "ouch!", e.g. wurdyaw (child)
  • bang (English: loud noise) but in Kunwok it sounds like how we pronounce "bung" (broken), e.g. bangkerreng (knock 'em down storm season)
  • kang (English, start of kangaroo) but in Kunwok it might not even be a single syllable e.g. ka.ngi.men (it went inside)


Finally, pronounce each syllable in succession.

Notes

  • Kunwok placenames sometimes have an English spelling that is distinct from the Kunwok spelling, e.g. Gunbalanya~Kunbarlanja