Difference between revisions of "Pronunciation"

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(split vowels and consonants)
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=== Vowels ===
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{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
|-
 
|-
 
| a      || [[wikipedia:Open back unrounded vowel|ɑ]]      || m'''a'''h (ok) || a as in father
 
| a      || [[wikipedia:Open back unrounded vowel|ɑ]]      || m'''a'''h (ok) || a as in father
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|-
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| e      || [[wikipedia:Open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]  || kunk'''e'''b (nose) || e as in pet (not before ng)
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|-
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| e      || [[wikipedia:Near-open front unrounded vowel|æ]] || bebm'''e'''ng (arrived) || a as in bang (before ng)
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|-
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| i      || [[wikipedia:Close front unrounded vowel|i]]    || b'''i'''n'''i'''nj (man) || e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
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|-
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| o      || [[wikipedia:Open back rounded vowel|ɒ]]        || kunw'''o'''k (language) || o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
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|-
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| u      || u                                              || k'''u'''nd'''u'''lk (tree) || u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)
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|-
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|}
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=== Consonants ===
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 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Kunwok!!IPA!!Example!!Comments
 
|-
 
|-
 
| b      || b      || '''b'''o'''b'''o (bye) || b as in baby
 
| b      || b      || '''b'''o'''b'''o (bye) || b as in baby
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|-
 
|-
 
| rd    || [[wikipedia:Voiced retroflex stop|ɖ]]          || wu'''rd'''u'''rd''' (child) || like d but with tongue tip curled back  
 
| rd    || [[wikipedia:Voiced retroflex stop|ɖ]]          || wu'''rd'''u'''rd''' (child) || like d but with tongue tip curled back  
|-
 
| e      || [[wikipedia:Open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]  || kunk'''e'''b (nose) || e as in pet (not before ng)
 
|-
 
| e      || [[wikipedia:Near-open front unrounded vowel|æ]] || bebm'''e'''ng (arrived) || a as in bang (before ng)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| h      || [[wikipedia:Glottal stop|ʔ]]                    || yo'''h''' (yes) || glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects   
 
| h      || [[wikipedia:Glottal stop|ʔ]]                    || yo'''h''' (yes) || glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects   
|-
 
| i      || [[wikipedia:Close front unrounded vowel|i]]    || b'''i'''n'''i'''nj (man) || e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| k      || k                                              || dalu'''k''' (woman) || k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
 
| k      || k                                              || dalu'''k''' (woman) || k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
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|-
 
|-
 
| rn    || [[wikipedia:Retroflex nasal|ɳ]]                || birriwe'''rn''' (everyone) || like n but with tongue tip curled back
 
| rn    || [[wikipedia:Retroflex nasal|ɳ]]                || birriwe'''rn''' (everyone) || like n but with tongue tip curled back
|-
 
| o      || [[wikipedia:Open back rounded vowel|ɒ]]        || kunw'''o'''k (language) || o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| r      || [[wikipedia:Retroflex approximant|ɻ]]          || ku'''r'''ed (camp) || r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
 
| r      || [[wikipedia:Retroflex approximant|ɻ]]          || ku'''r'''ed (camp) || r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rr    || [[wikipedia:Dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]] or [[wikipedia:Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]] || dja'''rr'''ang (horse) || t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
 
| rr    || [[wikipedia:Dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]] or [[wikipedia:Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]] || dja'''rr'''ang (horse) || t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
|-
 
| u      || u                                              || k'''u'''nd'''u'''lk (tree) || u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| w      || w                                              || '''w'''ak'''w'''ak (crow) || w as in wet
 
| w      || w                                              || '''w'''ak'''w'''ak (crow) || w as in wet

Revision as of 09:37, 19 July 2018

Vowels

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
a ɑ mah (ok) a as in father
e ɛ kunkeb (nose) e as in pet (not before ng)
e æ bebmeng (arrived) a as in bang (before ng)
i i bininj (man) e as in beet (but with the tongue body pushed up)
o ɒ kunwok (language) o as in not (UK, Australian) or thought (US)
u u kundulk (tree) u as in boot (US, UK), u as in book (Australian)

Consonants

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
b b bobo (bye) b as in baby
d d daluk (woman) d as in dog
dj ɟ djedje (woman's child) j as in jam (but with tongue body against hard palate)
rd ɖ wurdurd (child) like d but with tongue tip curled back
h ʔ yoh (yes) glottal stop, like tt in bottle in some English dialects
k k daluk (woman) k but with no aspiration (at end of syllable)
k g kured (camp) g as in game (at start of syllable)
l l delek (white clay) l as in long
rl ɭ berluh (aunty) like l but with tongue tip curled back
m m manme (food) m as in man
n n nayin (snake) n as in nose
ng ŋ ngalyod (rainbow serpent) ng as in sing
nj ɲ njale (what) gn as in gnocchi
rn ɳ birriwern (everyone) like n but with tongue tip curled back
r ɻ kured (camp) r as in red (but with tongue tip curled back further)
rr ɾ or r djarrang (horse) t as in water (said like a fast d) or else rolled r as in Scottish English
w w wakwak (crow) w as in wet
y j yoh (yes) y as in yes

Diphthongs

Kunwok IPA Example Comments
ay aj malaywi (morning) pronounced like aye in Scottish English
aw aw yawkyawk (girl) ou as in ouch
ey ɛj kunngey (name) a as in name
ew ɛw kudjewk (wet season) like el in elk but with rounded lips instead of the l
iw iw kundiw (liver) pronounced like iii-ooo, but quickly
oy ɔj doydoy (kin term) pronounced like 'oy!'
ow ow rowk (all) ow as in row
uy uj mannguy (flower) pronounced like ooo-iii, but quickly

Notes:

  • the second column uses the international phonetic alphabet (IPA); click on the IPA letters for more information
  • consonants are not aspirated like they are sometimes in English (no puff of air after k)
  • some words have doubled consonants like ngabba (father); take care to lengthen these, e.g. ngap.pa
  • sometimes it helps to break words down into syllables before trying to pronounce them, e.g. kun.ngey (name), be.rluh (aunty), kun.de.nge (foot), mo.djarrk.ki (freshwater crocodile)
  • rd is usually written d when we can predict an rd is required, e.g. rdird~dird (moon), kuwardrde~kuwardde (stone country)
  • d is pronounced rr when it appears between two vowels and when the following syllable is not stressed, e.g. Yirrurndi (you went back) vs. birridurndi (they went back)
  • Kunwok placenames sometimes have an English spelling that is distinct from the Kunwok spelling, e.g. Gunbalanya~Kunbarlanjnja