Pronominal Prefixes: Difference between revisions

From Kunwok
Jump to navigation Jump to search
No edit summary
 
(33 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
One of the early challenges in learning Kunwok is the [[Pronominal Prefixes|pronominal prefixes]].
+
One of the early challenges in learning Kunwok is the pronominal prefixes.
 
We'll break it down to make it easier to learn.
 
We'll break it down to make it easier to learn.
Pronominal prefixes are like pronouns (e.g. I, you, she) except they attach to the verb.
 
Thus, we can say ''ngare'' (I go), with the ''nga-'' prefix (I) attached to the ''re'' verb (go).
 
Use the ''yi-'' (you) prefix to say ''yire'' (you go).
 
   
  +
Pronominal prefixes are a bit like pronouns, such as I, you, she.
{| class=wikitable align=center
 
  +
However, they are attached to verbs. For example:
|Two kinds of verbs:
 
: Before getting started, it helps to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs.
 
: Transitive verbs ''transfer'' their action from the do-er to something/someone, from the agent to the patient (e.g. ''find'', ''follow'', ''deceive'', ''look after'').
 
: Intransitive verbs lack any object to receive the action (e.g. ''sleep'', ''run'', ''sit'', ''return'').
 
: Read more about [https://www.grammarly.com/blog/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs/ transitive and intransitive verbs].
 
|}
 
   
  +
* ''ngare'' (I go) is made up of ''nga-'' (I) and ''re'' (go)
== Step 1: Singular intransitive ==
 
  +
* ''yire'' is made up of ''yi-'' (you) and ''re'' (go)
   
  +
Can you form expressions with ''bidbun'' (climb), ''mankan'' (fall), ''keyo'' (sleep), ''bebme'' (arrive), and ''nalkbun'' (cry)? When you're ready, click on "expand" to see the answers.
We start with singular prefixes (I, you (sg), he/she/it).
 
   
{| class="wikitable"
+
{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"
  +
! I climb || you climb || I fall || you fall || I sleep || you sleep || I arrive || you arrive || I cry || you cry
!Nonpast!!Meaning!!Past!!Meaning!!Comment
 
 
|-
 
|-
| '''nga'''re || I go || '''nga'''wam || I went || ''nga-'' is the first-person singular, I
+
| ngabidbun || yibidbun || ngamankan || yimankan || ngakeyo || yikeyo || ngabebme || yibebme || nganalkbun || yinalkbun
|-
 
| '''yi'''re || you (sg) go || '''yi'''wam || you (sg) went || ''yi-'' is the second-person singular, you (sg)
 
|-
 
| ''ka''re || he/she/it goes || wam || he/she/it went || ''-'' (no prefix) is the third-person singular, he/she/it
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
NB ''ngabidbun'' can mean any of: I climb (present simple), I am climbing (present progressive), I will climb (future simple), I will be climbing (future progressive).
Notice the extra prefix ''ka-'' which only shows up in third person singular in present tense.
 
  +
Context will usually make it clear which sense is intended.
You'll hear it all the time, so you need to know it.
 
Here it is again for ''bidbun'' (climb) and ''mankan'' (fall).
 
   
{| class="wikitable"
+
{| class=wikitable align=center
  +
|Two kinds of verbs:
!Nonpast!!Meaning!!Past!!Meaning
 
  +
: Before getting started, it helps to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs.
|-
 
  +
: Transitive verbs ''transfer'' their action from the do-er to something/someone, from the agent to the patient (e.g. ''find'', ''follow'', ''deceive'', ''look after'').
| '''nga'''bidbun || I climb || '''nga'''bidbom || I climbed
 
  +
: Intransitive verbs lack any object to receive the action (e.g. ''sleep'', ''run'', ''sit'', ''return'').
|-
 
  +
: Sometimes a given verb has a transitive sense and a related intransitive sense (e.g. ''play'', ''grow'', ''read'', ''win'').
| '''yi'''bidbun || you (sg) climb || '''yi'''bidbom || you (sg) climbed
 
  +
: Read more about [https://www.grammarly.com/blog/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs/ transitive and intransitive verbs].
|-
 
| kabidbun || he/she/it climbs || bidbom || he/she/it climbed
 
|-
 
| '''nga'''mankan || I fall || '''nga'''mankang || I fell
 
|-
 
| '''yi'''mankan || you (sg) fall || '''yi'''mankang || you (sg) fell
 
|-
 
| kamankan || he/she/it falls || mankang || he/she/it fell
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
== Pronominal Prefixes with Intransitive Verbs ==
You might like to try writing and saying these prefixes with a range of other intransitive verbs,
 
e.g. ''dowen'' (be unwell), ''durndeng'' (return), ''nalkbun'' (cry), ''yerrkan'' (sit), ''dolkkan'' (stand).
 
 
== Step 2: Plural intransitive ==
 
 
Next, we replace the singular with the plural prefixes (we, you (pl), they).
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Nonpast!!Meaning!!Past!!Meaning!!Comment
 
|-
 
| '''karri'''re || we go || '''karri'''wam || we went || ''karri-'' means we (including the hearer), i.e. first-person plural inclusive
 
|-
 
| '''ngurri'''re || you (pl) go || '''ngurri'''wam || you (pl) went || ''ngurri-'' means you (pl), i.e. second-person plural
 
|-
 
| ka''birri''re || they go || '''birri'''wam || they went || ''birri-'' means they, i.e. the third-person plural
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
Note that when we translate ''karrire'' as 'we go', it also means 'we're going', 'let's go', and 'we will go'.
 
(If you find it strange that a verb can indicate present or future tense, just think about these English phrases:
 
''we go today'', ''we go next week'').
 
Let's see these prefixes again with ''bidbun'' and ''mankan''.
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Nonpast!!Meaning!!Past!!Meaning
 
|-
 
| '''karri'''bidbun || we (incl) climb || '''karri'''bidbom || we (incl) climbed
 
|-
 
| '''ngurri'''bidbun || you (pl) climb || '''ngurri'''bidbom || you (pl) climbed
 
|-
 
| ka'''birri'''bidbun || they climb || '''birri'''bidbom || they climbed
 
|-
 
| '''karri'''mankan || we (incl) fall || '''karri'''mankang || we (incl) fell
 
|-
 
| '''ngurri'''mankan || you (pl) fall || '''ngurri'''mankang || you (pl) fell
 
|-
 
| ka'''birri'''mankan || they fall || '''birri'''mankang || they fell
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
You might like to review what we have covered so far and make up a table for a verb in nonpast or past, for example:
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Singular!!Plural
 
|-
 
| '''nga'''re, ''I go'' || '''karri'''re, ''we (incl) go''
 
|-
 
| '''yi'''re, ''you (sg) go'' || '''ngurri'''re, ''you (pl) go''
 
|-
 
| kare, ''he/she/it goes'' || ka'''birri'''re, ''they go''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
It's a good idea to master this before going further.
 
You could make flashcards, or find a bininj to practice with.
 
You can also put these into sentences including nouns:
 
 
* bininj kare, ''the man goes, is going, will go''
 
* karrire ngudda dja ngaye dja wurdurd, ''Let's all go, you, me, and the kids''
 
* yimankang wanjh yidolkkang, ''You fell then you got up''
 
 
== Step 3: Singular transitive with third person object or subject ==
 
 
Remember that transitive verbs involve action that is transferred from subject to object.
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Nonpast!!Meaning!!Past!!Meaning
 
|-
 
| '''nga'''nan || I see him/her/it || '''ngan'''nan || he/she/it sees me
 
|-
 
| '''yi'''nan || you see him/her/it || '''ngun'''nan || he/she/it sees you
 
|-
 
| kanan || he/she sees him/her/it || kabinan || it sees him/her
 
|-
 
|}
 
   
  +
* [[Pronominal_Prefixes_I1|Intransitive Verbs 1]] (singular)
Note that the ''bi-'' prefix occurs when the subject is ''less animate'' than the object.
 
  +
* [[Pronominal_Prefixes_I2|Intransitive Verbs 2]] (plural)
So we can say ''bininj kanan duruk'' (the man sees the dog) or ''duruk kabinan bininj'' (the dog sees the man).
 
  +
* [[Pronominal_Prefixes_I3|Intransitive Verbs 3]] (plural)
   
  +
== Pronominal Prefixes with Transitive Verbs ==
Note also that we can put these words in different orders without changing who is doing the action, e.g.:
 
   
  +
* [[Pronominal_Prefixes_T1|Transitive Verbs 1]] (singular, third person singular objects)
* bininj kanan duruk ''the man sees the dog''
 
  +
* [[Pronominal_Prefixes_T2|Transitive Verbs 2]] (first person subject, second person object)
* duruk kanan bininj ''the man sees the dog''
 
  +
* [[Pronominal Prefixes T3|Transitive Verbs 3]] (singular, third person plural objects)
* bininj kabinan duruk ''the dog sees the man''
 
* duruk kabinan bininj ''the dog sees the man''
 

Latest revision as of 06:37, 21 July 2022

One of the early challenges in learning Kunwok is the pronominal prefixes. We'll break it down to make it easier to learn.

Pronominal prefixes are a bit like pronouns, such as I, you, she. However, they are attached to verbs. For example:

  • ngare (I go) is made up of nga- (I) and re (go)
  • yire is made up of yi- (you) and re (go)

Can you form expressions with bidbun (climb), mankan (fall), keyo (sleep), bebme (arrive), and nalkbun (cry)? When you're ready, click on "expand" to see the answers.

I climb you climb I fall you fall I sleep you sleep I arrive you arrive I cry you cry
ngabidbun yibidbun ngamankan yimankan ngakeyo yikeyo ngabebme yibebme nganalkbun yinalkbun

NB ngabidbun can mean any of: I climb (present simple), I am climbing (present progressive), I will climb (future simple), I will be climbing (future progressive). Context will usually make it clear which sense is intended.

Two kinds of verbs:
Before getting started, it helps to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs.
Transitive verbs transfer their action from the do-er to something/someone, from the agent to the patient (e.g. find, follow, deceive, look after).
Intransitive verbs lack any object to receive the action (e.g. sleep, run, sit, return).
Sometimes a given verb has a transitive sense and a related intransitive sense (e.g. play, grow, read, win).
Read more about transitive and intransitive verbs.

Pronominal Prefixes with Intransitive Verbs

Pronominal Prefixes with Transitive Verbs

Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.