Difference between revisions of "Learning the Pronominal Prefixes"

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Line 16: Line 16:
 
| '''nga'''re  || I go          || '''nga'''wam || I went        || ''nga-'' is the first-person singular, I
 
| '''nga'''re  || I go          || '''nga'''wam || I went        || ''nga-'' is the first-person singular, I
 
|-
 
|-
| '''yi'''re    || you (sg) go    || '''yi'''wam  || you went      || ''yi-'' is the second-person singular, you (sg)
+
| '''yi'''re    || you (sg) go    || '''yi'''wam  || you (sg) went      || ''yi-'' is the second-person singular, you (sg)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ''ka''re      || he/she/it goes || wam          || he/she/it went || ''0̸-'' is the third-person singular, he/she/it
 
| ''ka''re      || he/she/it goes || wam          || he/she/it went || ''0̸-'' is the third-person singular, he/she/it
Line 31: Line 31:
 
| '''nga'''bidbun  || I climb          || '''nga'''bidbom || I climbed
 
| '''nga'''bidbun  || I climb          || '''nga'''bidbom || I climbed
 
|-
 
|-
| '''yi'''bidbun    || you (sg) climb    || '''yi'''bidbom  || you climbed
+
| '''yi'''bidbun    || you (sg) climb    || '''yi'''bidbom  || you (sg) climbed
 
|-
 
|-
 
| kabidbun          || he/she/it climbs  || bidbom          || he/she/it climbed
 
| kabidbun          || he/she/it climbs  || bidbom          || he/she/it climbed
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| '''nga'''mankan  || I fall            || '''nga'''mankang || I fell
 
| '''nga'''mankan  || I fall            || '''nga'''mankang || I fell
 
|-
 
|-
| '''yi'''mankan    || you (sg) fall    || '''yi'''mankang  || you fell
+
| '''yi'''mankan    || you (sg) fall    || '''yi'''mankang  || you (sg) fell
 
|-
 
|-
 
| kamankan          || he/she/it falls  || mankang          || he/she/it fell
 
| kamankan          || he/she/it falls  || mankang          || he/she/it fell
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
== Step 2: Plural intransitive ==
 
== Step 2: Plural intransitive ==

Revision as of 21:55, 30 June 2018

One of the early challenges in learning Kunwok is the pronominal prefixes. We break it down here, to make it easier to learn. Pronominal prefixes are like pronouns (e.g. I, you, she) except they attach to the verb. Thus, we can say ngare (I go), with the nga- prefix (I) attached to the re verb (go).

NB. Before getting started, it helps to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs.

Step 1: Singular intransitive

We start with singular prefixes (I, you (sg), he/she/it).

Nonpast Meaning Past Meaning Comment
ngare I go ngawam I went nga- is the first-person singular, I
yire you (sg) go yiwam you (sg) went yi- is the second-person singular, you (sg)
kare he/she/it goes wam he/she/it went 0̸- is the third-person singular, he/she/it

Notice the extra prefix ka- which only shows up in third person singular in present tense. You'll hear it all the time, so you need to know it. Here it is again for bidbun (climb) and mankan (fall).

Nonpast Meaning Past Meaning
ngabidbun I climb ngabidbom I climbed
yibidbun you (sg) climb yibidbom you (sg) climbed
kabidbun he/she/it climbs bidbom he/she/it climbed
ngamankan I fall ngamankang I fell
yimankan you (sg) fall yimankang you (sg) fell
kamankan he/she/it falls mankang he/she/it fell

Step 2: Plural intransitive

Next, we replace the singular with the plural prefixes (we, you (pl), they).

Nonpast Meaning Past Meaning Comment
karrire we go karriwam we went karri- means we (including the hearer), i.e. first-person plural inclusive
ngurrire you (pl) go ngurriwam you (pl) went ngurri- means you (pl), i.e. second-person plural
kabirrire they go birriwam they went birri- means they, i.e. the third-person plural

Note that when we write we go it includes we're going and we will go. (This is a bit like saying in English: we go tomorrow).

Let's see these prefixes again with bidbun and mankan.

Nonpast Meaning Past Meaning
karribidbun we (incl) climb karribidbom we (incl) climbed
ngurribidbun you (pl) climb ngurribidbom you (pl) climbed
kabirribidbun they climb birribidbom they climbed
karrimankan we (incl) fall karrimankang we (incl) fell
ngurrimankan you (pl) fall ngurrimankang you (pl) fell
kabirrimankan they fall birrimankang they fell